SolanaceaeSource is a worldwide online taxonomic monograph of the nightshade family and represents the combined research efforts of c. 22 taxonomists across the world.
SolanaceaeSource contains all names in Solanaceae (Accepted species 2,662; Accepted genera 103; Updated: 19 Jan 2021). The database contains the most updated synonymy and >205,000 taxonomically verified specimens for the family. The SolanaceaeSource website has summary information about the family, and images of live plants for most genera. For the largest and most economically important genus in the family, Solanum, there are currently 1,243 accepted species and >164,000 specimens included in the resource. The SolanaceaeSource website serves >900 species descriptions for Solanum with photos of live plants and habitats where these are available. Major keys, including the global online multi-access key to Solanum groups and all non-spiny species of Clade I of Solanum that includes the wild relatives of potato, tomato, and pepino, as well as the Morelloids (the black nightshades such as S. nigrum) and Dulcamaroids (e.g., S. dulcamara, the woody nightshade).
SolanaceaeSource is an ongoing project and is continually updated. All names from the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) are included as well as many others, which means our list of names is often more complete than IPNI, particularly at the infraspecific level. We share data regularly with IPNI in a reciprocal arrangement. Synonymy is actively worked on as part of taxonomic revision so changes will occur time to time.
If you would like to contribute any data, including field photos, please contact us.
How to cite
Solanaceae Source. Current year. [item accessed]. Date downloaded. www.solanaceaesource.org.
SolanaceaeSource contains specimen data from 485 herbaria, We thank all staff from the following herbaria for access to material and permission to include data: A, AA, AAU, AD, AGUAT, AK, ALCB, AMAZ, AMES, ANDES, ANG, ANSM, APSC, ARIZ, AS, ASC, ASE, ASU, AZ, AZU, B, BA, BAA, BAB, BACP, BAF, BAH, BAL, BART, BBB, BBLM, BBLM-OWY, BCRU, BG, BH, BHCB, BHSC, BHZB, BI, BIGU, BISH, BK, BKF, BKL, BLAT, BLMVL, BM, BO, BOIS, BOLV, BONN, BOTU, BP, BR, BREM, BRI, BRIT, BRLU, BRU, BRY, BSB, BSD, BSHC, BSI, BSN, BUT, B‑W, C, CAL, CANB, CANU, CAS, CAUP, CAY, CBG, CCNL, CDS, CEN, CEPEC, CESJ, CGE, CGG, CHAP, CHAPA, CHR, CHSC, CIC, CICY, CIIDIR, CIP, CIQ, CIQR, CLEMS, CM, CN, CNS, CO, COAH, COI, COL, COLO, CONC, CONN, CORD, CPUN, CR, CRI, CRMO, CS, CTES, CU, CUVC, CUW, CUZ, CVRD, DBG, DBN, DD, DES, DH, DNA, DR, DS, DSC, DSM, DUKE, DVPR, E, EA, EAC, EAP, ECON, EIU, EKY, EMC, ENCB, ENLC, ESA, ETH, EWU, F, FCQ, FHO, FI, FLAS, FLOR, FM, FMB, FR, FSU, FT, FUEL, FURB, G, GA, GAS, GAT, GB, G‑BOIS, G‑DC, GH, GL, GMUF, GOET, GUAY, GZU, H, HA, HAJB, HAL, HAMAB, HAO, HAS, HAST, HB, HBG, HBR, HCF, HECASA, HF, HFSL, HIB, HIFP, HITBC, HO, HOH, HOXA, HPSU, HSP, HST, HSTM, HUA, HUAZ, HUCS, HUEFS, HUEM, HUFSJ, HUFU, HURB, HUSA, HUT, HUVA, HVASF, IAC, IAGB, IBE, IBK, IBSC, IBUG, ICA, ICN, ID, IDS, IEB, IFP, ILL, ILLS, INB, IND, INIAP, INIF, INPA, IPA, IRVC, ISC, IZAC, JAUM, JBGP, JBSD, JE, JEPS, JOI, JPB, JUA, K, KESC, KFTA, KHD, KIEL, KIRI, KUFS, KUN, K‑W, L, LAE, LAGU, LD, LE, LEA, LECB, LG, LIL, LINN, LISC, LL, LOJA, LP, LPB, LSCR, LSU, LU, LWI, LY, M, MA, MAC, MAINE, MARY, MASS, MB, MBK, MBM, MBML, MCNS, MEDEL, MEL, MEN, MER, MERF, MERL, MESA, MEX, MEXU, MG, MH, MHES, MHU, MI, MICH, MIN, MIRR, MISS, MISSA, MJG, MMNS, MO, MOD, MOL, MONT, MONTU, MOR, MPU, MPUC, MSB, MSC, MT, MU, MVFA, MVJB, MVM, MY, N, NA, NCBS, NCU, NDG, NE, NEB, NEBC, NHA, NHT, NIJ, NOU, NS, NSW, NT, NU, NY, O, OBI, OKL, OS, OSC, OTA, OUPR, OXF, P, PACA, PAL, PBL, PDA, PE, PERTH, PEUFR, PGM, PH, P‑LA, PMA, PMSP, PNNL, POM, PRC, PRE, PSM, PSO, PTBG, PTIS, PY, Q, QAP, QCA, QCNE, QPLS, QRS, R, RAB, RB, REG, RENO, RIOC, RM, RON, RPSC, RSA, S, SASK, SBBG, SCA, SCZ, SD, SEL, SF, SGO, SI, SING, SJRP, SL, SMDB, SMU, SOC, SP, SPF, SPSF, SRFA, SRGH, SRP, SRSC, STU, SUNIV, SZ, TAES, TAN, TCD, TCF, TEF, TEX, TI, TO, TTRS, TUB, U, UAMIZ, UB, UBC, UC, UCD, UCR, UCS, UDBC, UEC, UFACPZ, UFP, UFRN, UFRR, UIS, UMO, UNA, UNCC, UNM, UNOP, UNSL, UOS, UPCB, UPR, UPS, UPTC, URV, US, USF, USFS, USJ, USM, USMS, USZ, UT, UTC, UTMC, UV, V, VALD, VALLE, VDB, VEN, VIC, VIES, VMSL, VPI, VSC, VT, W, WA, WAG, WCSU, WCW, WELT, WGCH, WI, WIR, WIS, WOLL, WRSL, WS, WSTC, WTU, WU, WUK, WWB, XAL, YA, YU, Z, ZEA.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the original PBI Solanum project as part of the Planetary Biodiversity Inventories (PBI) mission (DEB-0316614).
Solanaceae Source is maintained by the Natural History Museum London and Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. These institutions are supported by the UK Government’s Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS), respectively.
- Sandra Knapp – Natural History Museum London, UK
- Tiina Särkinen – Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK
- Xavier Aubriot – University Paris-Sud, France
- Lynn Bohs – University of Utah, USA
- Eric Tepe – University of Cincinnati, USA
- Michael Nee – retired from New York Botanical Garden, USA
- David Spooner – US Department of Agriculture, USA
- Stephen Stern – Colorado Mesa University, USA
- Frank Farrugia – USA
- Andres Orejuela – Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK & Jardin Botanico de Bogota, Colombia
- Leandro Giacomin – Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Brazil
- João Stehmann – Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (UFMG), Brazil
- Yuri Gouvêa– Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (UFMG), Brazil
- Gloria Barboza – National University of Cordoba, Argentina
- Franco Chiarini– National University of Cordoba, Argentina
- Iris Peralta – National University of Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
- And many others, including collectors and curators of collections
- Särkinen, T. et al. (2013) A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): A dated 1000-tip tree. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-214.
- Stern, S., de Fátima Agra, M. and Bohs, L. (2011) Molecular delimitation of clades within New World species of the “spiny solanums (Solanum subg. Leptostemonum)’, Taxon, 60(5), p. 1429–1441.
- Tepe, E. J. et al. (2016) Relationships among wild relatives of the tomato, potato, and pepino. Taxon 65: 262–276. doi: 10.12705/652.4.
- Hilgenhof, R. et al. (2023) Morphological trait evolution in Solanum (Solanaceae): Evolutionary lability of key taxonomic characters. Taxon 72: 811.847. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/tax.12990
- Gagnon, E. et al. (2022) Phylogenomic discordance suggests polytomies along the backbone of the large genus Solanum. American Journal of Botany 109: 580-601. https://bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajb2.1827